Formative pruning is carried out in the first few years of a tree’s life to ensure a healthy structure to the branches within the crown. It is the selective shortening or removal of branches to minimise the chances of crossing branches, acute angled branch unions and codominant stems. Formative pruning gives a sapling the best chance of becoming a balanced and structurally sound tree.
Pollarding Is a method of management where the main leading stem of a young tree is removed to encourage regrowth. The regrowth that then occurs can be regularly removed (re-pollarding) back to the same point (the pollard head).
Epicormic growth is twiggy shoot growth which appears to grow from the bark surface and which grows on some species of trees notably lime and sycamore. It often grows from the base or on the stem or in the crown as a reaction to heavy pruning. Growth shoot growing from a dormant or adventitious bud located on stem and/or branches
The removal of deadwood is important to ensure safety of the surrounding area.
Reductions to the canopy of the tree can be undertaken to allow additional light or for health benefits to the tree
Crown lifting involves removing lower branches from the tree, essentially raising the crown.